Bioinformatics Applications in Chronic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review of Genomic, Transcriptomics, Proteomic, Metabolomics, and Machine Learning Approaches

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47852/bonviewMEDIN42022335

Keywords:

bioinformatics, chronic diseases, genomic analysis, biomarker discovery, targeted therapeutics

Abstract

This manuscript provides a detailed exploration of the pivotal role that bioinformatics plays in elucidating the intricate molecular landscape associated with chronic diseases. Emphasizing the significance and prevalence of these enduring health issues, the introduction establishes the broader context of bioinformatics in chronic disease research. This review systematically covers the application of bioinformatics tools and techniques in comprehending, identifying, and managing chronic illnesses. The first section highlights the importance of genetics and genomics, detailing the utilization of genomic data and advancements in genetic biomarker discovery. Subsequently, the discussion extends to transcriptomics and gene expression, encompassing profiling methods, the identification of dysregulated genes, and the regulatory functions of non-coding RNA in long-term illnesses.Moving forward, the manuscript delves into proteomics, elucidating protein-protein interaction networks, associated tools and techniques, and post-translational modifications. This comprehensive coverage aims to provide readers with a nuanced understanding of the molecular complexities underlying chronic diseases. The subsequent section focuses on metabolomics and metabolic pathways, with an emphasis on the clinical utility of metabolite biomarkers, changes in metabolic pathways, and techniques for characterizing diseases. Following this, the manuscript explores machine learning applications in bioinformatics, providing insights into their role in enhancing our understanding of chronic diseases. The later part of the manuscript addresses practical applications and case studies, showcasing disease-specific bioinformatics tools, databases, and the broader utility of research findings. Additionally, the penultimate section examines privacy, ethical considerations, and data quality concerns, addressing challenges and potential paths for the field of bioinformatics. In conclusion, the manuscript discusses forthcoming trends and prospective research directions, contributing to the advancement of bioinformatics research in chronic illnesses. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the multifaceted applications of bioinformatics in chronic disease research.

 

Received: 22 December 2023 | Revised: 23 January 2024 | Accepted: 31 January 2024

 

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to this work.

 

Data Availability Statement

The data that support this work are available upon reasonable request to the corresponding author.

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Published

2024-02-06

How to Cite

Ogunjobi, T. T., Ohaeri, P. N., Akintola, O. T., Atanda, D. O. ., Orji, F. P., Adebayo, J. O. ., Abdul, S. O., Eji, C. A., Asebebe, A. B., Shodipe, O. O. ., & Adedeji, O. O. (2024). Bioinformatics Applications in Chronic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review of Genomic, Transcriptomics, Proteomic, Metabolomics, and Machine Learning Approaches. Medinformatics. https://doi.org/10.47852/bonviewMEDIN42022335

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Section

Review