Modified Chalcogenide Glass Equations for the Activation Energy of Crystallization




chalcogenide glass, activation energy of crystallization, GRIN glass, DSC analysis, crystal growth, infrared optics


For over six decades, chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have played a pivotal role in the optical community, fostering innovations and new applications in photonics, electronics, and electro-optics. In the last decade, the exploration of novel applications, such as Gradient Index (GRIN) ChGs, has underscored the need for a nuanced comprehension and precise control of nucleation and crystallization kinetics in emerging infrared glass compositions. This article explores the activation energy of crystallization in amorphous materials, particularly focusing on ChGs. It identifies long-standing challenges associated with existing models used for crystal growth in nucleated glasses. Employing carefully outlined mathematical logic, our study critiques conventional models and introduces innovative equations centering around the need for balanced units and proper physical trends. These new models overcome some shortcomings of the established framework and provide a more accurate depiction of crystallization kinetics. To validate the efficacy of our proposed models, we conducted a comparative analysis using differential scanning calorimetry data from a recently published Sb-Te-Se chalcogenide glass composition. The numerical and graphical results clearly illustrate the improvements inherent in our models and their practical utility. Beyond ChGs, our models and equations have broader applications. They may extend to oxide, halide, oxy-halide, and fluoride glass compositions, as well as polymers, contributing new tools to the understanding of crystallization kinetics across diverse materials.


Received: 29 November 2023 | Revised: 9 January 2024 | Accepted: 18 January 2024


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to this work.


Data Availability Statement

Data sharing not applicable – no new data generated. All data used in calculations was extracted from Elabbar et al. (2008).




How to Cite

Loretz, R. A., & Loretz, T. J. (2024). Modified Chalcogenide Glass Equations for the Activation Energy of Crystallization. Journal of Optics and Photonics Research, 1(1), 16–22.



Research Articles