Spam Detection Using Bidirectional Transformers and Machine Learning Classifier Algorithms
Keywords:spam detection, transfer learning, transformer, BERT, classifier, machine learning
Spam email has accounted for a high percentage of email traffic and has created problems worldwide. The deep learning transformer model is an efficient tool in natural language processing. This study proposed an efficient spam detection approach using a pretrained bidirectional encoder representation from transformer (BERT) and machine learning algorithms to classify ham or spam emails. Email texts were fed into the BERT, and features obtained from the BERT outputs were usedto represent the texts. Four classifier algorithms in machine learning were employed to classify the features of the text into ham or spam categories. The proposed model was tested using two public datasets in the experiments. The results of the evaluation metrics demonstrate that the logistic regression algorithm achieved the best classification performance in both datasets. They also justified the efficient ability of the proposed model in detecting spam emails.
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