Green Economy Versus Dark Health: Risk Tolerance Boosts Adaptation to Soot-Contaminated Environment


  • Catherine N. Ekwe Department of Educational Foundations and Counselling, Imo State University, Nigeria
  • Catherine C. Okpara Department of Live Science, Imo State University, Nigeria
  • Larry O. Awo Department School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Nigeria



adaptation to soot environment, soot risk tolerance, oil-producing communities, moderation model, physical and health concerns


There are growing mental health concerns over soot contamination of Niger-delta communities as a result of oil exploration activities. Our study sought to understand soot risk tolerance (SRT) as a pathway through which the association between exposure to soot (ES) and perceived soot risk concerns (SRCs) could be explained among residents of oil-producing communities in the coastal region of Nigeria. Data were obtained through a survey research design with the aid of The Authors suggest that Self-report measures is allowed as it is of ES, SRC, and SRT. PROCESS macro moderation results revealed that the positive association between ES and SRC (B = 1.22, t = 2.07, p = 0.027) was weakened by SRT (negative moderated) (B = −2.38, t = −4.16, p = 0.000) such that the association was weak for residents with high SRT scores and strong for residents with low SRT sores. The key finding implies that risk tolerance is crucial to survival in oil-producing communities with physical soot pollution. We recommend that risk tolerance should be included in measures designed to boost individual’s capacity to adapt and function in a soot-contaminated environment.


Received: 9 February 2023 | Revised: 13 March 2023 | Accepted: 18 March 2023


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to this work.


Data Availability Statement

Data available on request from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.




How to Cite

Ekwe, C. N., Okpara, C. C., & Awo, L. O. (2023). Green Economy Versus Dark Health: Risk Tolerance Boosts Adaptation to Soot-Contaminated Environment. Green and Low-Carbon Economy, 2(2), 124–130.



Research Articles