How to Recognize Arguments? A Study of Human Negotiations




argument, negotiation, argument structure, inter-argument relations, dialogue act, automatic recognition


Different kinds of negotiations and presented arguments are considered in this paper. Discussions in the Parliament of Estonia as well as negotiation in telemarketing calls, travel, and everyday conversations are studied. In the Parliament, negotiation involves many participants while the other conversations take place between two participants. In the analyzed texts, argument components (premises and claims), argument structures (basic, linked, etc.), and relations (support, attack, and rebuttal) are annotated manually. For annotating dialogue acts (DAs), a customized typology and custom-made software is used. This preliminary study aims to find cues for recognizing arguments in Estonian texts automatically. It turns out that some DAs and language features contribute to the recognition of arguments and inter-argument relations.


Received: 9 February 2023 | Revised: 15 August 2023 | Accepted: 4 September 2023


Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that she has no conflicts of interest to this work.


Data Availability Statement

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analyzed in this study.


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How to Cite

Koit, M. (2023). How to Recognize Arguments? A Study of Human Negotiations. Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 2(3), 202–208.



Research Article